Fukuda stressed technique over formal exercises,
or kata. His method was to give an explanation of the exercises, but to concentrate
on free-style fighting in practice sessions. Jigoro Kano's emphasis on "randori"
in Judo undoubtedly found its beginnings here under Fukuda's influence. The Kodokan's
procedure of teaching beginners the basis of Judo, then having them engage in
randori and only after they had attained a certain level of proficiency, teaching
them the formal kata, came from Fukuda and a later sensei named Iikubo. At 19,
Jigoro instructed 20 or 30 students, starting with kata and then moving on to
free fighting. By the time he was 21 years old in 1881, Kano had become a master
in Tenjin-shinyo-ryu jujitsu.
Forms of Gentleness
no Kata teaches the theory of the skillful application of flexibility in order
to defeat strength and it was developed to study how to lift up a body and understand
the ways of different fighting methods. Ju no Kata was developed at the Kodokan
(Seizure of Both Hands)
(Head Cut with hand Sword)
(Pressing Down on Both Shoulders)
(Single Hand Seizure from the Side)
(Single Hand Raising)
(Direct Head Strike)
(Both Eyes Poke)
no Kata - Forms of Hardness/Strength|
Go no Kata is one of the oldest
Kodokan kata and "represents an important historical link between the classical
practices of jujutsu and the all-round educational emphasis of Jigoro Kano's Kodokan
Judo." This article describes a demonstration of the Go no Kata in 1998 at the
Kodokan, the first time it had been performed at the Kodokan in 50 years. Seven
techniques are included in the kata, three of which are repeated with different
entering (irimi) patterns. The techniques are all executed from jigotai (defensive
posture) without gripping the clothing. According to Kodokan Professor Toshiro
Daigo, the Yuko no Katsudo6 published by the Kodokan in November 1921, and Antony
Cundy's article, the techniques performed in the Go no Kata are:
2. Ushirogoshi 3. Sukuinage 4. Hidari Seionage 5. Ukigoshi 6. Hadakajime koshikudaki
7. Tobigoshi ukigoshi 8. Osoto otoshi 9. Ushirogoshi 10. Kataguruma
no Kata - Forms of Counters
Go no sen is a strategy, one of the three basic strategies, which can be loosely
translated as ‘counter technique’. Kano recognized three levels of
combative initiative (sen): 1) go no sen, the ‘late’ form of attack
initiative, usually characterized as a defensive move or counteraction; 2) sen,
the attack initiative that is also defensive but launched simultaneously with
the aggressor's attack; 3) sen-sen no sen, a supraliminal attack initiative, also
defensive but appearing to be offensive, through which the aggressor's attack
is anticipated and "beaten to the punch" by an appropriate action. This kata was
created by Kyuzo Mifune, tenth dan. It is also known as Nage Ura no Kata and is
not a recognized Kodokan kata.
Jigoro Kano (1860--1938)
Founder of Judo
International Judo Federation Techniques
de-ashi-harai (or barai)
okuri-ashi-harai (or barai)
(29) and Kinshi Waza (4)
The Study of Falling|
It is so important to success in Judo that we practice ukemi not just when we
are beginning to learn Judo, but as a part of almost every practice session. Jigoro
Kano, the founder of Judo, explains the importance of ukemi this way: As I have
often said if one hates to be thrown, one cannot expect to become a master of
the art. By taking throws time after time, one must learn how to take falls and
overcome the fear of being thrown. Then one will become unafraid of being attacked
and be able to take the initiative in attack. Only by following this manner of
training can one learn true Judo technique. It is not possible to excel in throwing,
or to defend against an attack successfully, without a thorough understanding
of falling. It is also not possible to be successful in matwork without learning
to control the transition from standing to the mat, the very definition of falling.
The traditional order of training is to move from the simple to the more difficult.
Each person will progress at their own speed but the basic steps are as follows:
At first practice falling from a low position, and gradually move higher. Learn
one direction and style of falling, then learn to fall in other directions. First
fall in place, then add movement. In the beginning move slowly and carefully,
then increase speed. First fall by yourself, then have a partner throw you. When
someone is throwing you, repeat the learning steps 1 through 4 (i.e. start with
a low throw, one direction, no movement, and slow speed). This step-by-step, approach
to safe falling sets the stage for developing confidence, coordination, and control.
Learning to fall properly and safely can be a big step towards facing some of
the other more difficult lessons that come with intense Judo training. In addition,
this method of learning will immediately transfer well to the study of your first
throws. For example, first learn easy throws, in one direction, without movement,
slowly with a cooperating partner. As you master each element then add other directions,
movement, resistance, etc. Knowing the importance of ukemi, strive to improve
your skills. Challenge yourself by practicing different ways to fall, keeping
safety uppermost in mind. Constantly work on developing a fearless attitude that
will eventually allow you to relax and fully enjoy the complete Judo experience.
a hip technique. As your opponent steps toward
you with his right foot, you step in and pivot, lowering your hips to bring them
in just under your opponent's hips. You pull his upper body toward you with your
right hand while your left arm circles his body until your hand comes to rest
at the small of his back As you continue your pivot, spring upwards with your
hips, lifting your opponent and pulling him down and across your back with your
right arm. Complete the throw by rolling your opponent off your right side and
to the mat. You step in closer on this one than with Uki Goshi. You need to be
in tighter for the lifting action of your hip to pick them up. If you are too
far out, the springing action from your hips will tend more to rock them back
than lift them up. Rocking them back is exactly what you don't want to have happen
when you are trying to do this throw.
Major Inner Reaping
lines of your shoulders form a
"T". Keep your foot low to the mat while sweeping. Move your foot in a circular
motion so that you catch your knee behind your opponent's knee. As your foot sweeps,
push forward and up with your hand against your opponent's jawline. An alternative
is to reach down with the hand on the sweeping side and grab the opponent's trousers
and lift to augment the sweeping action. In this case, push with your shoulder
and upper body.
This action is a block to stop Uke from
stepping forward to maintain balance then wheels Uke round and over blocking foot.
Upper Palm Heal Strike
The technique shown below is illustrated in my book Modern Self Defense
for the 21st Shutei Tsuki is effective when your opponent is in front
of you or when you wish to move your opponent back (increasing the
distance between you and Uke). The following key points should be
remembered: Speed is more desirable than power. All the power in the
world wont help your strike is too slow Never over-extend the strike.
Extending the strike too far with make you off balance and make you
vulnerable to counter strikes, sweeps and throws. Always exhale when
striking. This increases power to the technique. Practice striking
techniques in front of a mirror. This way you can see what you are
doing. I carry this over into my dojo and when working with students,
I will perform the mirror image of what I am teaching. For added balance,
keep your hand against a wall for added support. Right hand in the
chamber, left palm straight out, fingers straight up and together,
centered on the body, nose height. Extend the right hand forward fingers
upward, stopping when the arm is almost fully extended, centered on
the body, nose height. Simultaneously, retract the left arm into the
chamber, rotating hand so that the palm is upward. A strong stance
provides a solid foundation for the technique. In addition, the right
hand retracts into the chamber to avoid becoming a handle that can
be grabbed and in the case of another Uke behind Tori, as a strike.
To properly strike an opponent, you must drive through the target.
If you want to strike your opponents nose, you must aim for the back
of the head. This way, when you make contact, you will drive your
strike through the target.
of the greatest swordsmen in Japanese history, Shinmen Musashi No Kami Fujiwara
No Genshin, was born in the village of Miyamoto in 1584. A descendant of the Fujiwara
clan who were pre-eminent in the Heian period, Musashi had a complex relationship
with his emotionally, and literally, distant father, before being orphaned at
the age of seven and left in the care of his uncle, a priest. His father, Munisai
Hirato, had been a warrior, and Musashi inherited an aggressive temperament, and
studied kenjutsu from an early age.
he was 13, Musashi participated in his first single combat, challenging the swordsman
Arima Kigei, who had invited challenges as a means of proving the superiority
of his school, Shinto-Ryu. Although Musashi was very young, Kigei accepted his
challenge. Musashi defeated the samurai, striking him repeatedly with a stick,
so violently that he died. As well as his skill, this duel displayed the savagery
which marked Musashi as a young man.
his early life, Musashi learned to wield a katana in one hand, instead of the
usual two-handed grip, and began the development of a style of fighting using
two swords. However, he did not utilise either technique in his formal duelling
for many years. At 16, deciding that his true desire was to seek enlightenment
in the way of the sword, Musashi left his home to begin his Musha-Shugyo. Usually
translated 'warrior pilgrimage', the Musha-Shugyo was a samurai tradition, in
which a warrior would become ronin and travel the land, fighting in duels to establish
and perfect his own skill, and to promote the strength and value of his school.
Musha-Shugyo was a period of total commitment for Musashi. He denied himself luxuries,
never cut his hair, never married and never even bathed. It was said by some that
his refusal to shave his head was due to eczema scars caused by congenital syphilis,
while his total rejection of personal hygiene is seen either as a deliberate attempt
to confuse opponents, or as a result of his refusal to undress and lay down his
swords, as he would have to do in order to wash. Whatever his reasons, Miyamoto
Musashi became the archetypal unkempt, invincible ronin, as he passed through
duels and wars undefeated.
in his pilgrimage, Musashi fought in the battle at Sekigahara, where Tokugawa
Ieyasu defeated the followers of his rival, Hideyori. Despite joining the army
of Hideyori, Musashi survived both the bloody, three-day battle, and the brutal
hunting and slaughtering of the losing army which followed it. Aside from this,
he remained largely untested until his arrival in Kyoto at the age of 21, and
his clash with the Yoshioka family. The Yoshiokas had been the fencing masters
of the Ashikaga house for generations, and even after the demise of the Ashikaga
Shogunate they remained prominent in the affairs of Kyoto. They could therefore
have ignored this itinerant, unknown country swordsman without loss of face, but
they did not. Years before, Musashi's father had fought duels with three members
of the Yoshioka family, defeating two of them, and the family might have been
looking for revenge against the son of Munisai.
the reasoning, Musashi first fought Yoshioka Seijiro, head of the family, almost
as soon as he arrived in Kyoto. Although at the end of a journey, and armed only
with a bokken (a heavy wooden practice sword), Musashi defeated Seihiro, leaving
him gravely wounded. Once recovered, Seijiro hung up his swords and cut off his
samurai topknot in shame. Seeking to avenge his family's shame, Seijiro's brother,
Denshichiro, challenged Musashi. Already showing a flair for strategy, Musashi
deliberately goaded his opponent by turning up late, and the enraged and distracted
Denshichiro was killed in the duel. Finally, a challenge was issued from Seijiro's
pre-teen son, Hanshichiro. An ambush was planned for Musashi, with several dozen
warriors arriving to lay in wait for him. However, on this occasion Musashi had
arrived early and hidden himself. Attacking from concealment, he killed Hanshichiro,
fought his way free of the mob and left Kyoto.
this dramatic and brutal beginning, Musashi's Musha-Shugyo made him a legend in
his own lifetime. He defeated swordsman after swordsman, and many warriors armed
with other weapons. He defeated a spearman of the renowned Hozoin temple, and
studied with the monks there for a time around 1605. At about the same time, he
fought and killed Shishido Baikin, a noted master of the kusari-gama (a sickle
and chain weapon), by distracting him with a thrown dagger. As shown by this incident,
Musashi was a shrewd and ruthless combatant, and had little attachment to the
idea of a fair fight, but this is not to say that he could not win a straight
match. He often fought swordsmen armed only with a bokken, and defeated the master
swordsman Muso Gonosuke with a slender wooden wand intended for use as a bow shaft.
After this match, Gonosuke is said to have been inspired to create the art of
1612, Musashi defeated the noted master swordsman Sasaki Kojiro in one of his
most famous duels. It is said that he once again arrived late, and that he fought
armed with a bokken he had carved from an oar on his way to the duel, while Kojiro
used a real sword. He mocked Kojiro when the older man threw away his scabbard,
remarking that he would not need it again. According to accounts of the fight,
the two men struck hard at each other's heads, and while Kojiro's blade cut through
Musashi's headband, Musashi struck faster, and the impromptu bokken split Kojiro's
skull before he could complete his blow. After this duel, Musashi rarely fought
anyone using a real sword. One account has him defeating a swordsman simply by
guarding himself with a tessen (an iron defensive fan) until his opponent became
tired and submitted.
exception to this rule was a fight in Enmyo, against Miyake Gunbei, in which Musashi
first used his two-sword style in a duel. He killed Gunbei, and named the style
Enmyo-Ryu, after the duel (Ryu means school, or style). Later he changed the name
to Nito Ichi-Ryu (Two Swords integrated as One School), and then again to Niten
Ichi-Ryu. Niten means 'two heavens', and is thought to refer to Musashi's most
famous combat stance, with two daito raised above his head. It is said that on
his death, not one of Musashi's students could master Niten Ichi-Ryu, and the
style died with its creator.
his later life, Mushashi was a more measured, patient and humble man than in his
youth. As well as Niten Ichi-Ryu kenjutsu, he devoted himself to the perfection
of the other arts practised by the samurai. He claims to have gained a full understanding
of strategy by 1634, and he wrote numerous works on the subject, and also on the
art and way of the sword, including his two great treatises: Heiho Sanjugokajo
('The 35 Articles on the Art of Swordsmanship'), expounding the basic principles
of Niten Ich-Ryu and the philosophy and combat strategies behind it; and Go Rin
No Sho, 'The Book of Five Rings'. Go
Rin No Sho
- for which the 35 articles is considered a prototype - is probably the most famous
of all Japanese works on the martial arts, and is a basic part of any kendo bibliography.
Rin No Sho is divided into five sections - the rings - each named after one of
the traditional Japanese elements. The Book of Earth sets out the basics of strategy
and of living. Musashi identifies four ways of life - farmer, merchant, noble
warrior and craftsman - and expounds on the way of the warrior, and the mindset
and philosophies required of a true samurai. 'The Book of Water' is a guide to
learning combat, and sets out descriptions of various daito moves. 'The Book of
Fire' deals with battle strategy and tactics. It emphasises aggression, and the
importance of drawing out your enemy's weaknesses and exploiting them. 'The Book
of Wind' deals with traditions, and with the intellectual part of strategy; knowing
your opponent, and the strengths and weaknesses of his strategy. The last book,
'The Book of Emptiness', deals with the mysticism and philosophy of the warrior.
The book is intended as a guide, rather than a how-to manual, and is structured
to force the reader to improve himself.
his later years, Musashi also mastered ink painting, calligraphy, wood sculpture
and metalworking. He used the nom de plume Niten, and founded a school of tsuba
- 'sword guard' - art which bore the same name. Several examples of his work survive.
He is also known as Kensei, sword-saint, and is truly one of the most famous of
all samurai. To this day his legend survives, as the undoubted model for Toshiro
Mifune's signature role, and for the comic book character Miyamoto Usagi.
Gozen is one of the few examples of a female samurai warrior in Japanese history.
More than simply a defender of the homestead in time of necessity, she is described
as a warrior of peerless skill, going into battle like a man. She was either the
wife of Minamoto Yoshinaka, or by some sources a female attendant, but in either
case is described as one of Yoshinaka's senior captains. Yoshinaka was one of
the Minamoto lords who fought against the Taira in the Gempei War, and after the
Minomoto victory at Kurikawa in 1084 placed Kyoto in Minamoto hands, Yoshinaka
felt that he should become the overall leader of the clan.
feeling was contested by Minamoto Yoritomo. Yorimoto's forces attacked Yoshinkaka
and Gozen at Awazu, and despite putting up a tremendous fight, their forces were
overwhelmed. With only a handful of warriors standing, Yoshinaka ordered his wife
to flee the field rather than face capture and death. Accounts vary of what followed.
Some say that Gozen stayed and died with her husband, while others state that
she fled the battlefield. In the latter instance, there is further uncertainty.
Most accounts state that she fled with a severed head, but again sources vary
between claiming that she took the head of an enemy soldier named Onda no Hachiro
Moroshige, or that of her husband taken to keep him from capture. A final debate
surrounds the fate of Gozen after her escape, as some state that she cast herself
into the sea with her husband's head, while others assert that she became a nun.
what many people think or claim, there is no unified philosophy of Aikido. What
there is, instead, is a disorganized and only partially coherent collection of
religious, ethical, and metaphysical beliefs which are only more or less shared
by Aikidoists, and which are either transmitted by word of mouth or found in scattered
publications about Aikido.
Some examples: "Aikido is not a way to fight
with or defeat enemies; it is a way to reconcile the world and make all human
beings one family." "The essence of Aikido is the cultivation of ki [a vital force,
internal power, mental/spiritual energy]." "The secret of Aikido is to become
one with the universe." "Aikido is primarily a way to achieve physical and psychological
self- mastery." "The body is the concrete unification of the physical and spiritual
created by the universe." And so forth. At the core of almost all philosophical
interpretations of Aikido, however, we may identify at least two fundamental threads:
(1) A commitment to peaceful resolution of conflict whenever possible. (2) A commitment
to self-improvement through Aikido training.
Art of Peace."
The Meaning of Tai Chi - Tai-chi
can be treated as the driving force of the universe, which generates two poles
(Yang, Yin), then evolving the four phases (sky, earth, men, and matter), which
then produce the eight sections ( sky, earth, men, matter, time, space, material
and spirit). They give rise to all kinds of activities in the earth.
"Tai Chi Chuan is created through observations of the natural phenomena of matters
in the universe, the physiological needs and nervous system of the body. It is
the accumulation of the wisdom and essence of the Chinese martial arts. The postures
are outstanding and the movements are free, smooth and natural. The whole set
of postures is made up of many circles linking together." "In the circular movement,
we have to consider "Ying Yan", "Reality and emptiness", so as to increase the
practical value of self-defense. We must also incorporate them with the breathing
technique so that the strength is concealed under a disguise of gentleness. The
movement may appear to be light and weak but the force is actually extremely hard
and strong. So Tai-chi Chuan is the training of Man's potential inner energy.
It is one of best forms of martial arts and an invaluable treasure of the Chinese
"Research your own experiences for the truth. Absorb what is useful... Add
what is specifically your own...The creating individual...is more important than
any style or system." ~ Bruce Lee
Bruce started training in the martial arts mainly to
overcome his fear of being humiliated in a street fight. As a teenager he began
to get into more and more fights for no reason at all. And if he didn't win he
was furious. As a result, under the great master Yip Man's Wing Chun (meaning
"beautiful springtime") teachings, Bruce became a proficient martial artist, not
to mention a feared street fighter. However, Bruce actually had more than one
teacher. As time went by, Bruce grew. His enthusiasm towards martial arts was
more apparent. He was young, energetic and competitive. He soon became acquainted
with Wing-chun's basic Kung Fu. Since he was very clever, Mr Yip loved him very
much and taught him many secret techniques in Win Chun Kung Fu. He became an expert
in Wing Chun Kung Fu.
Black Science - The fighting skills of the
shadow warrior – the ninja – made them feared throughout Japan.
But the wise man had greater fear for their bloodless methods
of domination, which the ninja mind masters preferred to crude
physical violence. Ninja broke through their enemies’ mental defenses
using direct attack or stealth, comparing such operations to invading
an enemy fortress. In this guided tour through the mysterious
realm of the ninja, martial arts experts Dr. Haha Lung and Christopher
B. Prowant reveal the secrets that will allow you to tell when
someone is lying to you, implant false memories, tailor your attack
by using the specific keys to each individual’s mind, use verbal
patterns and body language to earn your foe’s utter trust, interrogate
using unbeatable psychological methods and much more.You will
also learn the terrifying truth behind modern mind-control, propaganda
and brainwashing techniques used by cults (and our own government),
as well as take a look ahead to the future of mass mind control.
The wars of tomorrow may well be won or lost in the battlefield
of the mind.
Quotes & Ideas
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